This guide is derived from Data School's Machine Learning with Text in scikit-learn session with my own additional notes so you can refer to them and they should be self-sufficient to guide you through.

In order to make a predictionthe new observation must have the same features as the training observationsboth in number and meaning. From the scikit-learn documentation :. Text Analysis is a major application field for machine learning algorithms. However the raw data, a sequence of symbols cannot be fed directly to the algorithms themselves as most of them expect numerical feature vectors with a fixed size rather than the raw text documents with variable length.

We will use CountVectorizer to "convert text into a matrix of token counts":. A corpus of documents can thus be represented by a matrix with one row per document and one column per token e. We call vectorization the general process of turning a collection of text documents into numerical feature vectors. This specific strategy tokenization, counting and normalization is called the Bag of Words or "Bag of n-grams" representation.

Documents are described by word occurrences while completely ignoring the relative position information of the words in the document. For instance, a collection of 10, short text documents such as emails will use a vocabulary with a size in the order ofunique words in total while each document will use to unique words individually. In order to be able to store such a matrix in memory but also to speed up operationsimplementations will typically use a sparse representation such as the implementations available in the scipy.

After you train your data and chose the best model, you would then train on all of your data before predicting actual future data to maximize learning. We will use multinomial Naive Bayes :. The multinomial Naive Bayes classifier is suitable for classification with discrete features e. The multinomial distribution normally requires integer feature counts.

However, in practice, fractional counts such as tf-idf may also work. In this case, we can see that our accuracy 0.

We will compare multinomial Naive Bayes with logistic regression :. Logistic regression, despite its name, is a linear model for classification rather than regression. Logistic regression is also known in the literature as logit regression, maximum-entropy classification MaxEnt or the log-linear classifier.

In this model, the probabilities describing the possible outcomes of a single trial are modeled using a logistic function. We will examine the our trained Naive Bayes model to calculate the approximate "spamminess" of each token. Before we can calculate the "spamminess" of each token, we need to avoid dividing by zero and account for the class imbalance.How do you use the interjection for snorting?

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How to suspend rebar in concreteOrganisational search option Why are there two fundamental laws of logic? Bernoulli; how to use model to predict? Feature Mismatch with OneHotEncoder while predicting for a single instance of dataHow can using more n-gram orders decrease accuracy for Multinomial NaiveBayes classifier?

I am not able to know what should be the input for the trained model after opening the model from the pickle file. ValueError: could not convert string to float: 'RT ScotNational The witness admitted that not all damage inflicted on police cars was caused.

More precisely, you need to use a word embedding the same used for training the model. I suggest you to play with sklearn. CountVectorizer and sklearn. TfidfTransformer to familiarize yourself with the concept of embedding. However, if you do not use the same embedding as the one used to train the model you load, there is no way you will obtain good results.

Text classification: value error couldn't convert str to floatsklearn: vectorizing in cross validation for text classificationsci-kit learn: Reshape your data either using X. Text classification: value error couldn't convert str to float sklearn: vectorizing in cross validation for text classificationsci-kit learn: Reshape your data either using X.

Input for random forest classifier trained model for text classification I am not able to know what should be the input for the trained model after opening the model from the pickle file. Venkatachalam N 6, 6 6 gold badges 15 15 silver badges 41 41 bronze badges.

Chetan Manju Chetan Manju 11 1 1 bronze badge. You need to encode the text as numbers. No machine algorithm can process text directly. Eskapp Eskapp 1, 14 14 silver badges 27 27 bronze badges. Sign up or log in StackExchange. Sign up using Facebook.Basically it determines the probability that an instance belongs to a class based on each of the feature value probabilities.

NLP is a field that has been much related to machine learning, since many of its problems can be formulated as a classification task. We have to partition our data into training and testing set.

The loaded data is already in a random order, so we only have to split the data into, for example, 75 percent for training and the rest 25 percent for testing. Our machine learning algorithms can work only on numeric data.

Currently we only have one feature, the text content of the message; we need some function that transforms a text into a meaningful set of numeric features. The sklearn. You will find three different classes that can transform text into numeric features: CountVectorizer, HashingVectorizer, and TfidfVectorizer.

The difference between them resides in the calculations they perform to obtain the numeric features. CountVectorizer basically creates a dictionary of words from the text corpus.

Then, each instance is converted to a vector of numeric features where each element will be the count of the number of times a particular word appears in the document. HashingVectorizer, instead of constricting and maintaining the dictionary in memory, implements a hashing function that maps tokens into feature indexes, and then computes the count as in CountVectorizer.

This is a statistic for measuring the importance of a word in a document or corpus. Intuitively, it looks for words that are more frequent in the current document, compared with their frequency in the whole corpus of documents.

You can see this as a way to normalize the results and avoid words that are too frequent, and thus not useful to characterize the instances. We will use the MultinomialNB class from the sklearn. In order to compose the classifier with the vectorizer, scikitlearn has a very useful class called Pipeline available in the sklearn. CountVectorizer and TfidfVectorizer had similar performances, and much better than HashingVectorizer.

Perhaps also considering the slash and the dot could improve the tokenization, and begin considering tokens as Wi-Fi and site. We have a slight improvement from 0. If we decide that we have made enough improvements in our model, we are ready to evaluate its performance on the testing set.

If we look inside the vectorizer, we can see which tokens have been used to create our dictionary:. Close Menu About Me. Importing our pylab environment.

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Populating the interactive namespace from numpy and matplotlib. Import the newsgroup Dataset, explore its structure and data. Actually, I am bit puzzled too and a bit relieved. However, I am going to put an end to non-PIttsburghers' relief with a bit of praise for the Pens.

Man, they are killing those Devils worse than I thought. Jagr just showed you why he is much better than his regular season stats. He is also a lot fo fun to watch in the playoffs.By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service.

Cross Validated is a question and answer site for people interested in statistics, machine learning, data analysis, data mining, and data visualization.

It only takes a minute to sign up. I considered both the "training score" and the "cross validation score", but I noticed that while in the Multinomial version the training score is very high at the beginning and decreases and the cross-validation score is very low at the beginning and increases, in the Bernoulli version I have a low training score at the beginning and then it increases.

Is it normal or am I doing something wrong? It sounds a bit strange to me. Here's the Multinomial plot:.

### Sentiment Analysis of Tweets using Multinomial Naive Bayes

This one is the Bernoulli one:. Why are they so different? The cross validation score is like what I was expecting both in Multinomial and Bernoulli, but the training score should be high at the beginning, right? Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Home Questions Tags Users Unanswered. Ask Question. Asked 4 years, 2 months ago. Active 4 years, 2 months ago. Viewed 1k times. Here's the Multinomial plot: This one is the Bernoulli one: Here is some of my Python code Bernoulli version : load dataset from sklearn.

Trevor Trevor 31 4 4 bronze badges.

Gradient slider flutterIf you look at it closely, the decrease in performance in the first plot is very small. This may happen for various reasons, like having some mislabeled examples e.

The fact that they converge at a different rate indicates that the first classifier is better suited for this problem. I thought they didn't have to be so different from each other since their differences are transparent to the programmer using scikit-learn, and mainly one has to pay attention to the representation of the document-vector Bernoulli requires a binarized vector.

I don't understand where is the error. Active Oldest Votes. Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook. Sign up using Email and Password. Post as a guest Name. Email Required, but never shown. The Overflow Blog. Q2 Community Roadmap. The Overflow How many jobs can be done at home? Featured on Meta. Community and Moderator guidelines for escalating issues via new response…. Feedback on Q2 Community Roadmap.By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service.

Fslabs forumsThe dark mode beta is finally here. Change your preferences any time. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. I would like to apply Naive Bayes with fold stratified cross-validation to my data, and then I want to see how the model performs on the test data I set aside initially. However, the results I am getting i. First off GaussianNB only accepts priors as an argument so unless you have some priors to set for your model ahead of time you will have nothing to grid search over.

This is the same as fitting an estimator without using a grid search. For example I use MultinomialNB in order to show use of hyperparameters :. Learn more.

Asked 1 year, 9 months ago. Active 1 year ago. Viewed 6k times. Grr 11k 5 5 gold badges 41 41 silver badges 63 63 bronze badges. Krishna Patel Krishna Patel 11 1 1 silver badge 3 3 bronze badges. Active Oldest Votes. For example I use MultinomialNB in order to show use of hyperparameters : from sklearn. Grr Grr 11k 5 5 gold badges 41 41 silver badges 63 63 bronze badges. KrishnaPatel the code I included utilizes a grid search with 10 fold stratified cross validation.

Perhaps you are confused about cross validation? The point of cross validation isn't to build multiple estimators and get the most accurate one. The point of cross validation is to build an estimator against different cross sections of your data to gain an aggregate understanding of performance across all sections.

This way you can avoid choosing a model based on a potentially biased split. See sklearn's cross validation module.Suppose you are a product manager, you want to classify customer reviews in positive and negative classes.

Or As a loan manager, you want to identify which loan applicants are safe or risky? As a healthcare analyst, you want to predict which patients can suffer from diabetes disease. All the examples have the same kind of problem to classify reviews, loan applicants, and patients.

Naive Bayes is the most straightforward and fast classification algorithm, which is suitable for a large chunk of data. Naive Bayes classifier is successfully used in various applications such as spam filtering, text classification, sentiment analysis, and recommender systems.

It uses Bayes theorem of probability for prediction of unknown class. Whenever you perform classification, the first step is to understand the problem and identify potential features and label. Features are those characteristics or attributes which affect the results of the label. These characteristics are known as features which help the model classify customers.

The classification has two phases, a learning phase, and the evaluation phase. In the learning phase, classifier trains its model on a given dataset and in the evaluation phase, it tests the classifier performance.

Performance is evaluated on the basis of various parameters such as accuracy, error, precision, and recall. Naive Bayes is a statistical classification technique based on Bayes Theorem. It is one of the simplest supervised learning algorithms.

Naive Bayes classifier is the fast, accurate and reliable algorithm. Naive Bayes classifiers have high accuracy and speed on large datasets. Naive Bayes classifier assumes that the effect of a particular feature in a class is independent of other features. Even if these features are interdependent, these features are still considered independently. This assumption simplifies computation, and that's why it is considered as naive. This assumption is called class conditional independence.

Given an example of weather conditions and playing sports. You need to calculate the probability of playing sports. Now, you need to classify whether players will play or not, based on the weather condition.

For simplifying prior and posterior probability calculation you can use the two tables frequency and likelihood tables.

Paraview overviewBoth of these tables will help you to calculate the prior and posterior probability. The Frequency table contains the occurrence of labels for all features. There are two likelihood tables. Likelihood Table 1 is showing prior probabilities of labels and Likelihood Table 2 is showing the posterior probability. The probability of a 'Yes' class is higher.

So you can determine here if the weather is overcast than players will play the sport. Now suppose you want to calculate the probability of playing when the weather is overcast, and the temperature is mild. So you can say here that if the weather is overcast than players will play the sport. In this example, you can use the dummy dataset with three columns: weather, temperature, and play.

The first two are features weather, temperature and the other is the label.

Wet cm 7dpoFirst, you need to convert these string labels into numbers. This is known as label encoding.

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Scikit-learn provides LabelEncoder library for encoding labels with a value between 0 and one less than the number of discrete classes. Till now you have learned Naive Bayes classification with binary labels. Now you will learn about multiple class classification in Naive Bayes.Please cite us if you use the software.

The multinomial Naive Bayes classifier is suitable for classification with discrete features e. The multinomial distribution normally requires integer feature counts. However, in practice, fractional counts such as tf-idf may also work.

Read more in the User Guide. Prior probabilities of the classes. If specified the priors are not adjusted according to the data.

Les pronoms doubles exercicesNumber of samples encountered for each class during fitting. This value is weighted by the sample weight when provided. Number of samples encountered for each class, feature during fitting. Rennie et al. Manning, P. Raghavan and H. Schuetze Introduction to Information Retrieval. Cambridge University Press, pp. If True, will return the parameters for this estimator and contained subobjects that are estimators.

This method is expected to be called several times consecutively on different chunks of a dataset so as to implement out-of-core or online learning. Returns the log-probability of the samples for each class in the model.

Returns the probability of the samples for each class in the model. In multi-label classification, this is the subset accuracy which is a harsh metric since you require for each sample that each label set be correctly predicted. The method works on simple estimators as well as on nested objects such as pipelines.

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